Istrian towns and villages

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Smrikve Pula Premantura
Brijuni Vodnjan Medulin
Fazana Galizana Vizace
Peroj Svetvincenat Marcana
Bale Kanfanar Mutvoran
Monkodonja Dvigrad Krnica
Rovinj Zminj Rakalj
Lim Bay Sv. Petar u Sumi Barban
Klostar Tinjan Rasa
Gradina Beram Labin
Vrsar Trviz Rabac
Funtana Gracisce Sv. Martin
Sv. Lovrec Pazin Sumber
Sv. Ivan Lindar Pican
Porec Kascerga Krsan
Mali Sv. Andjelo Zamask Klostar
Baredine Cave Motovun Kozljak
Tar Oprtalj Gologorica
Visnjan Zrenj Paz
Vizinada Zavrsje Belaj
Novigrad Grimalda Boljun
Karpinjan Draguc Lupoglav
Dajla Racice Raspor
Brtonigla Sovinjak Slum
Seget Vrh Ucka
Umag Hum Plomin
Savudrija Roc Brsec
Groznjan Buzet Moscenice
Buje Kostel Lovran
Momjan Salez Opatija
Istra Veprinac

Major influences

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Premantura – Promontore “Cape Kamenjak’s paradise”

The very old name of Premantura was Acropoli di Pola or Capo di Pola. This was the name used by Strabone and Stefanos from Constantinople.

In the 1st century, the Roman Pomponio Mela, named it Promunturium Polaticum. In 1540 was named Promotore by Coppo.

Like most other Istrian towns and villages also the area of Cape Kamenjak was inhabited in prehistoric times.

There are four prehistoric hill fort settlements that are known in the area: Kasteljir (Monterosso, 68 meters high hilltop), Gradina (Moncastello, 76 meters high hilltop), Gomila (Rovina, 75 meters high hilltop) and Castril (36 meters high hilltop).

Between Premantura and prehistoric hill fort settlement Gradina there was a Roman village on the coast, located in front of Medulin, named Runtian or Runtianum.

In the middle ages on the same site Ronzano or Ronzi settlement was built, later on destroyed at the beginning of the 17th century by Uskoci. Today this area is named Runke.

Premantura in its history followed mostly the destiny of Pula and suffered many plague years. In 1561 several families from Bologna arrived in the area but few years later they returned to Italy.

In 1585 eight families from Zadar in Dalamatia arrived in Premantura and restored the life in the old town. Few other families arrived later on. In 1614 families from Sinj established in Premantura. Uskoci were from Sinj and Venetians expelled them from Premantura in 1615.

At the end of the 17th century in Premantura lived many hajduk families arrived in Istria in 1671 with Bajo Nikolic Pivljanin. Bajo Nikolic lived in Pula at the time and his people were sort of pirates. At the end of the 17th century when Venetians destroyed the ships they used for the pirate attacks these families returned to Boka Kotorska.

After the fall of Venice in 1797, Premantura followed the same destiny of Pula. It was part of the Austrian Empire and for a short period of time was under Napoleon domination. After the First World War and the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Premantura, was part of Italy. After the Second World War became part of Yugoslavia (Croatia).

During the Italian Fascist period in Istria many Istrian families suffered from the regime or had to leave Istria. Fascism in Istria applied various repressive measures mostly towards Slav populations and this created the Antifascist Movement. The Second World War was a very painful experience for the Istrian population and many innocent Istrians, both Slav and Latin, died during that war.

After the second World War Premantura became part of Yugoslavia (Croatia). There were three agreements between Yugoslavia and Italy which established that Istria would become a part of Yugoslavia: Paris Agreement of 1947, London Memorandum of 1954 and the Osimo Agreement reached in 1975. In the first decade after the Second World War many Istrians, especially those living in towns and villages that for centuries were part of the Venice Republic, decided to leave Istria.

In 1991 with the fall of Yugoslavia and the founding of the Republic of Croatia, the internal republic boundaries were recognised as the state boundaries and Premantura is today part of Croatia.

In 2013 Premantura became part of the European Union. You can not change the past but you can try to learn from it. The main aim of the European Union founders was to build a system that could avoid future wars and future refugees in Europe as I explain in COSMOPOLITE.


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